Leptospirosis - human and animal common disease

Leptospirosis is an infection transmitted by a group of bacteria called spirochetes that dogs acquire a Leptospira interrogans subspecies when penetrates the skin and spread throughout the body via the bloodstream. Many wildlife observation can be hosts of these bacteria, the most common are: rats, foxes, dogs, pigs, cattle, birds and reptiles etc.

Spirochetes spread throughout the body, reproduce in liver, kidney, central nervous system, eyes and genitals. Shortly after the initial infection, when the first episodes of fever, a sign that blood bacterial infection develops, but these symptoms disappear as soon as the antibody response that eliminates most of the spirochetes in the body. The extent to which these bacteria affect organs will depend on the animal's immune system and its ability to completely eradicate the infection. Even then, Leptospira spirochetes may remain in the kidney, there is reproducing and pouring urine infection. Liver or kidney infection can be fatal to animals if the infection progresses, causing serious damage to these organs. Young animals with less developed immune systems are most susceptible to severe complications.
 
Symptoms:
- Sudden fever
- Muscle pain, reluctance to move
- Stiffness in muscles, legs (stiff gait)
- shaking
- Weakness
- depression
- Lack of appetite
- Animal drink plenty of water and needed to urinate often (which can mean chronic renal failure)
- Rapid dehydration
- Vomiting (sometimes with blood)
- Diarrhea (with or without blood)
- Bloody vaginal discharge
- cough
- Difficulty in breathing (rapid breathing, irregular pulse)
- Runny nose
- Nodes increase in volume;

Causes - spirochete Leptospira infection occurs mainly in subtropical environments, tropical and humid. Leptospira spirochetes are most common in wetlands and surface waters that are frequented by wildlife. The most common Leptospira spirochetes infections occur when your pet comes in contact with infected water, soil, and mud, while swimming, in contact with contaminated drinking water, or when they make contact with an infected animal urine. This last method of contacting the infection may occur in the wild. Hunting dogs, dogs that live near wooded areas, and dogs that live near farms are at increased risk of acquiring bacterial disease.
  
Diagnosis - Because leptospirosis is a zoonosis, the veterinarian will be particularly cautious when handling and examine pets, and we advise you to do the same. Protective gloves made of latex must be worn at all times of coming into contact with the animal and all body fluids shall be treated as hazardous biological material. Urine, semen, vomit, and any fluid that leaves the body will be treated with extreme caution. The area should be cleaned ft well in the animal leaves its disinfectant fluids.
 
The veterinarian will examine the animal will make correlations with anamaneza and also some tests will be required to lead to a correct diagnosis, namely: a blood biochemistry, a complete blood count, a urinalysis. Bacterial cultures of urine and blood will also be conducted to examine the prevalence of bacteria. A microscopic agglutination test, or an antibody titer will also be conducted to measure the body's immune response to infection by measuring the presence of antibodies in the blood.

Treatment of leptospirosis is relatively easy. Fortunately, many common antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin) kill leptospira. Most dogs recover completely. Few are suffering from chronic renal failure or develop chronic hepatitis - none is curable. And, it is important to keep in mind that spirochetes may continue to be excreted in the urine for several weeks after treatment.
There is no vaccine against this disease in humans. In animals there are vaccines for some strains.

Other preventive measures consist of careful management of populations of rodents and how to dispose of manure. Take care to swim: covered with waterproof plasters all scratches or wounds, wear swimsuits. After bathing shower use. Wash hands after you have interacted with animals.